Bruk av multimodale lesemedier, En studie av 11 elever som er sterkt svaksynte på grunnskolens mellom- og ungdomstrinn i Norge

Avhandlingen undersøker lesesituasjonen til 11 elever som er sterkt svaksynte. Elevene i utvalget har fått innføring i multimodale lesemedier (punktskrift, visuell skrift og tekster på lyd). Temaet er lite utforsket og det har høy relevans for fagfeltet syn. Data omfatter bakgrunnsopplysninger fra synspedagog, resultater fra leseprøver, og intervjuer av elevene, foresatte og lærere. Analysene benytter interaksjonistiske teorier på individ- og systemnivå. Mangel på kompetanse i punktskrift og IKT i læringsmiljøet, bidrar ofte til svake leseferdigheter og bruk av tekster på lyd. Elevene velger det lesemediet som de opplever gir funksjonalitet. Barnas beskrivelser og mestringsstrategier er et viktig bidrag ved anbefaling og tilrettelegging av den enkeltes leseutvikling. Utvikling og tilrførsel av spesifik synspedagogisk kompetanse er avgjørende for at sterkt svaksynte elever kan utvikle leseferdigheter. Nye begreper utledes og kriterier for anbefalinger av lesemedier foreslås. Det skisseres tiltak for utvikling og tilførsel av synsfaglig kompetanse til skole og hjem samt tematikk for forskning og utviklingsarbeider. 

Forskning og utvikling

Astrid Kristin Vik (2010). Bruk av multimodale lesemedier, En studie av 11 elever som er sterkt svaksynte på grunnskolens mellom- og ungdomstrinn i Norge.

Doktoravhandling ved Det utdannings-vitenskaplige fakultet. Universitetet i Oslo

Doktorgraden består av tre artikler 

Artikkel 1
Vik, A.K & Fellenius, K. (2007). Coping strategies in reading: Multi-readers in the Norwegian General Education System. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, September 2007, AFB, 545-556

Sammendrag: This study investigated the coping strategies of 11 students for whom multiple reading media were recommended (multi-readers are those who combine braille, print, and auditory reading functionally at school and in leisure activities). These students were in grades 5-10 in mainstream schools in Norway. Four students were identified as multi-readers. The dominant coping strategy for the students was auditory reading.

Artikkel 2
Vik, A.K. (2008). Individual and environmental conditions for the literacy development of pupils with severe visual impairments. Journal of Assistive Technologies 2 (4), Pavilion Journals (Brighton) Ltd

Sammendrag: This study investigates how environmental conditions for development in reading, as well as support in Braille and assistive technology, have influenced the literacy of 11 pupils in Norwegian mainstream schools. It was recommended that these pupils learn to read both Braille and print because of their severe visual impairments ie. a visual acuity of 0.1 (20/200), or
complicated visual functioning. Their reading and participation in a modern society depends on extensive use of assistive technology. The analysis is based on the pupils’ coping strategies in reading and interviews with pupils, teachers and parents. Findings show that the pupils have appropriate reading devices for Braille and print, but technical aid for Braille is infrequently used. Lack of competence in Braille and reading devices at school and home will influence stimulation of
literacy and choice of reading media. Possibilities in assistive technology are thus not fully realised. Each pupil’s individual needs, as well as ways in which support and stimulation could be provided, should therefore be addressed when recommending reading media and devices.

Nøkkelord: Assistive reading devices; children; competence; inclusion; literacy; visual impairments.

Artikkel 3
Vik, A.K. &  Lassen, L.M. (2010) How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. 57:(3), 279 — 298.

Sammendrag: This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used audiotext format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of stress and coping used to analyse the pupils’ descriptions of the reading challenges indicated that pupils used various problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies making it possible for resource-strong pupils to excel. Resource-weak pupils, however, daily struggled with or avoided reading. Some refocused their efforts towards joyful nonreading activities. When professional competence and support in choosing reading media was minimal, option availability beamen a burden and left pupils to cope on their own.

Nøkkelord: Children's voices; coping; inclusive school; reading competence; visual
impairment